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Traditional Masculinity-Femininity (TMF) Scale

The Traditional Masculinity-Femininity (TMF) measure is a brief scale designed to assess the central facets of self-ascribed masculinity-femininity construct.

Developed by:

Sven Kachel, Melanie C. Steffens, Claudia Niedlich (University of Koblenz and Landau)

Measure domains:

physical appearance
attitudes and beliefs

Items and subscales:

6 items

Outcomes predicted:

Gender conformity and sexual orientation


Cronbach's alpha:


Study population(s):

Students from European universities ages 18-47

Additional information:

Validity assessed using existing measures:

Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI)

Childhood Gender Role Behavior (CGRB)

German Extended Personal Attributes Questionnaire (GEPAQ)

Measure validated?:


Citation of original article

Get citation
Kachel, S., Steffens, M. C., & Niedlich, C. (2016). Traditional masculinity and femininity: Validation of a new scale assessing gender roles. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 19.