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Intervention With Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity (IMAGE) 9 Indicators of Women's Empowerment

9, quantitative indicators of empowerment were drawn from development and public health literature and developed for a rural South African context to evaluate the IMAGE intervention.

Developed by:

Julia C. Kim, Charlotte H. Watts, James R. Hargreaves, Luceth X. Ndhlovu, Godfrey Phetla, Linda A. Morison, Joanna Busza, John D. H. Porter, Paul Pronyk

Measure domains:


Financial confidence

Challenging gender norms

Autonomy in decision-making

Perceived contribution to the household

Communication within the household

Relationship with partner

Social group membership

Participation in collective action

Items and subscales:

45 questions

Outcomes predicted:

Past year experience with physical or sexual IPV

Past year experience of controlling behavior Progressive attitudes to IPV

Study population(s):

Women ages 18 to 96 who received a microfinance loan through the IMAGE intervention and a matched control group who did not receive a loan.

Additional information:

Intimate partner violence outcome questions drawn from the WHO Violence Against Women study instrument

Measure validated?:


Link(s) to Validation Study and/or Measure: