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Women's and Girls' Empowerment in Sexual and Reproductive Health (WGE-SRH)

A cross-cultural index of women's and girls' empowerment in sexual and reproductive health (WGE-SRH) measures. Authors conducted psychometric analysis to identify items that represented each latent WGE-SRH domain (existence of choice and exercise of choice) in relation to the three SRH outcomes (volitional sex, contraceptive use and pregnancy).

Developed by:

Caroline Moreau, Celia Karp, Shannon N. Wood, Amy Tsui, Hadiza Galadanci, Simon Peter Sebina Kibira, Fredrick Makumbi, Elizabeth Omoluabi, Solomon Shiferaw, Assefa Seme

Measure domains:

Existence of choice for 3 SRH outcomes:

Volitional sex
Contraceptive use

Exercise of choice for 3 SRH outcomes:

Volitional sex
Contraceptive use

Items and subscales:

22 items


Sexual existence of choice (12 items)
Contraceptive existence of choice (12 items)
Pregnancy existence of choice (11 tested at all sites; additional 13 in Nigeria)
Sexual exercise of choice (4 items)
Contraceptive exercise of choice (6 items) 
Pregnancy exercise of choice (3 tested at all sites; additional 2 in Nigeria)

Outcomes predicted:

Sex by choice
Contraception by choice
Pregnancy by choice

Cronbach's alpha:

Subscales ranged from 0.71–0.79

Study population(s):

Women aged 15–49 across sites in Ethiopia, Uganda, and two sites in Nigeria

Additional information:

Construct validity analyses found that for some sites, high scores on the sexual and contraceptive existence of choice subscales were associated with elevated odds of volitional sex and contraceptive use, respectively.

More information about the measure development and outcomes can be found here:


Measure validated?:


Link(s) to Validation Study and/or Measure:

Citation of original article

Get citation
Moreau C, Karp C, Wood SN, Galadanci H, Kibira SPS, Makumbi F, Omoluabi, Shiferaw S, Seme A, Tsui A (2020). Reconceptualizing women's and girls' empowerment: A cross-cultural index for measuring progress toward improved sexual and reproductive health. Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health, 46:187-198.