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Pregnancy-Related Empowerment Scale

The pregnancy-Related Empowerment Scale (PRES) is a valid and reliable measure of women's health-related empowerment during pregnancy for English and Spanish-speaking women in prenatal care.

Developed by:

Carrie S. Klima, Susan C. Vonderheid, Kathleen F. Norr, Chang G. Park (College of Nursing, University of Illinois Chicago)

Measure domains:

Provider connectedness
Skillful decision-making
Peer connectedness
Gaining voice

Items and subscales:

16 items
4 subscales

Cronbach's alpha:

Total Sample: 0.94

English: 0.91
Spanish: 0.93

Study population(s):

Women participating in an ongoing study of prenatal care in Illinois

Measure validated?:


Link(s) to Validation Study and/or Measure:

Uses in Other Studies:

Patil, C. L., Klima, C. S., Leshabari, S. C., Steffen, A. D., Pauls, H., McGown, M., & Norr, K. F. (2017). Randomized controlled pilot of a group antenatal care model and the sociodemographic factors associated with pregnancy-related empowerment in sub-Saharan Africa. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 17(Suppl 2).
Prata, N., Tavrow, P., & Upadhyay, U. (2017). Women’s empowerment related to pregnancy and childbirth: introduction to special issue. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 17(Suppl 2).

Uses in Other Studies Links:

Citation of original article

Get citation
Klima, C.S., Vonderheid, S.C., Norr, K.F., Park, C.G. (2015). Nursing and Health 3(5): 120-127, 2015 DOI: 10.13189/nh.2015.030503